Citation Guide

Revised March 2007

citation clipart

We have adapted this “Quick Guide” from the Chicago Manual of Style for use at Kalamazoo College in the Department of Religion.  Students should consult with professors to be sure their citations are accurately formatted.  The text and examples following are taken from the Manual of Style web page.  We recommend students use the “T” (Text) and “R” (Reference) styles for papers, and the “N” (Note) and “B” (Bibliography) formats for Senior Individualized Projects. Please familiarize yourself with this guide so you are familiar with the differences between these styles.

Below are some common examples of materials cited in both styles:  the humanities and the author-date style commonly used in the natural sciences. Each example is given first in humanities style (a note [N], followed by a bibliographic entry [B]) and then in author-date style (an in-text citation [T], followed by a reference-list entry [R]).

Online sources analogous to print sources (such as articles published in online journals, magazines, or newspapers) should be cited similarly to their print counterparts, but with the addition of a URL. Some publishers or disciplines may also require an access date, as the Department of Religion does. For online or other electronic sources not having a direct print counterpart (such as an institutional Web site or a Weblog), give as much information as you can in addition to the URL. The following examples include some of the most common types of electronic sources.

Please note:  When using the “N” note format, you only need to use the full format found below for the first instance of each book, article, or source.  Each subsequent reference to the same book should use an abbreviated version, as in Doniger, Splitting, 76.  If you only have one source from an author, you can just use the author’s name.  These abbreviated references should appear in the footnotes, and should not be confused with “T” or in-text references.

Book

One author
N:   1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65.
B:   Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
T:   (Doniger 1999, 65)
R:   Doniger, Wendy. 1999. Splitting the difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Two authors
N:   6. Guy Cowlishaw and Robin Dunbar, Primate Conservation Biology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 104–7.
B:   Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. Primate Conservation Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
T:   (Cowlishaw and Dunbar 2000, 104–7)
R:   Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. 2000. Primate conservation biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author
N:   4. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.
B:   Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.
T:   (Lattimore 1951, 91–92)
R:   Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Chapter or other part of a book
N:   5. Andrew Wiese, “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States,” in The New Suburban History, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 101–2.
B:   Wiese, Andrew. “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States.” In The New Suburban History, edited by Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
T:   (Wiese 2006, 101–2)
R:   Wiese, Andrew. 2006. “The house I live in”: Race, class, and African American suburban dreams in the postwar United States. In The new suburban history, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Journal Article

Article in a print journal
N:   8. John Maynard Smith, “The Origin of Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639.
B:   Smith, John Maynard. “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.
T:   (Smith 1998, 639)
R:   Smith, John Maynard. 1998. The origin of altruism. Nature 393: 639–40.
Article in an online journal
If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the fourth example below.
N:   33. Mark A. Hlatky et al., “Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo.
B:   Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. “Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6, 2002), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo.
T:   (Hlatky et al. 2002)
R:   Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Quality-of-life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

Newspaper Article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn noted in a New York Times article on June 20, 2002, . . . ”) instead of in a note or an in-text citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.
N:   10. William S. Niederkorn, “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery,” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.
B:   Niederkorn, William S. “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery.” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.
T:   (Niederkorn 2002)
R:   Niederkorn, William S. 2002. A scholar recants on his “Shakespeare” discovery. New York Times, June 20, Arts section, Midwest edition.

Book Review

N:   1. James Gorman, “Endangered Species,” review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert, New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16.
B:   Gorman, James. “Endangered Species.” Review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002.
T:   (Gorman 2002, 16)
R:   Gorman, James. 2002. Endangered species. Review of The last American man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June

Website

Websites may be cited in running text (“On its Website, the Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees states . . .”) instead of in an in-text citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the second example below.
N:   11. Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach,” Evanston Public Library, http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html.
B:   Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).
T:   (Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees)
R:   Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library strategic plan, 2000–2010: A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html.

Items in Online Database

Journal articles published in online databases should be cited as shown above, under “Article in an online journal.” If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the first example below.
N:   7. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, ed. John Bostock and H. T. Riley, in the Perseus Digital Library, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Plin.+Nat.+1.dedication (accessed November 17, 2005).
B:   Perseus Digital Library. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/.
T:   (Pliny the Elder, Perseus Digital Library)
R:   Perseus Digital Library. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/.